Climatic Change Impact on the Grain Crops’ Yielding Capacity at Various Soil Cultivation Ways within Crop-Sugar Beet Rotation Agrocenoses in the Left-Bank Ukraine’s Forest-Steppe

  • A. Demydenko -
  • V. Velychko -
Keywords: grain crops, winter wheat, heat resource, subsurface loosening, grain-hoeing rotation, organic fertilizers

Abstract

Aim . To estimate the infl uence of contemporary climatic changes to the forming of the cereal crops productivity ( winter wheat and corn ) depending on the adaptive measures system ( fertilizer , cultivating , crop rotation type) in the agrocenoses of the Central Left - Bank Ukraine ’s Forest- Steppe. Methods . On the basis of long - term ( 35 -40 years ) investigations in the multifactor stationary fi eld experience, the dynamics of the cereal crops productiv- ity depending on cultivation , crop rotation type and fertilizer has been analyzed. The infl uence of meteorologica l indices on the nature of a trends’ temporal movement in the cereal crops productivity has been modeled . Results . The effective use of an excess heat resource is connected to the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers sub- ject to different cultivation methods in various crop rotation type s. For the crop rotation with the perennial grass at treatment with 6 t / ha of manure and average dose of fertilizers, the productivity of winter wheat, independent of the cultivation method, was 4.69 t / ha , barley – 4. 54 t/ h a ; whereas du ring 20 01−201 0 due to rep lacement of man ure wit h sid e-li n e pro ducts – 4.21 and 3 .37 t/ha r e sp ectively, i.e. , less by 0. 48 and 1 .17 t/ha. T he p rodu ctivity of sp rin g barle y, as co mpa red to th e m anur e treatment period, has reduced in av erage by 0. 66 t/ha, o r by 23 .8 per cent; along side, it re mained highe st at th e d eep subsu rface loose ning of so il. Ret ur n from the a ppli ed ferti lizers prove d to be highe r by 12 3 p er c ent independent of the m etho d of tr eat ing the s oil. In fi ve- plot pea-i ncluding crop rotation the a vera ge produ ctivity of wi nte r wheat in 2 001− 2010 d ecre a sed by 1.0 9 t /ha, o r by 20 per c ent. The mo st c onsiderable reduct ion in the grain productivity has b een fi xed at bot h the su bsur face and su rfac e loosen ing of soi l. As f or the cr op r otation with t he pe renn ial grass, on t he contrary, a mo re c onsiderable drop i n the produc tiv- ity was at plo ugh ing (-0.59 t/ha). T he co rn p roductivity in the cr op r otation with t he pe renn ial grass grew a t var i- ous cultivation methods by 1.7 1 t /ha a v e ra ge, and in the pe a-in cluding crop rotation – by 1 .9 5 t /ha. C o nc lu sions. Exce ss heat r esource during 2001−2 013 in cond iti ons of the Left-Ba nk U k raine ’s Forest- S teppe z one ant icipa tes in raisi ng tempos the forecast scenario s of the c limatic change until 20 25 and need s t he intr oduc tion of the a daptive agricult ure system: the ap pl icat ion of diffe rin g-depth c u ltivat ing for the cher nozems with the prec ise following of the p ostharv est cultivat ion technological operatio ns in the s umm er-a utumn p eriod t ogether with the simu ltan eous basic au tumn t reatmen t with both organic and mine ral fertilizers, however, without the basi c d o se tre atmen t with the mineral fertilizers for spri ng c ultivat ion, and al so app lying of green -ma nured fallows in the s tru ctur e of plant ed areas. U nder th e cont empo rary conditio ns, the clim atic change, in par ti cular, an inc re ase in the t emperat ure in the c ent er p art of the L eft-Ban k Uk r aine’ s Forest-Steppe favorabl y affects an incre ase in the p roducti vity of the e xist- ing hybrids of corn, wh erea s the desc endi ng general trend ha s been observed during entire e xplorat ion period for the wint er w heat an d barl ey p roductivity because of an incre ase in the t emperat ure of air t o t he c rit ical values i n the p eri od o f earin g a nd grai n po uring. The ex c e ss h eat res ource is effectively used by the cont emp o rary middle- and of l ate- ri p enin g corn hybrids, for wh ic h th e cond itio ns of optim um soil and atmo sphe ric moist ure supply in the “win dbu r n” are created period of arden t a nd wint er e ar crop s. That contrib u tes to the g rowth o f thei r pr oducti vity.
Published
2014-07-15
How to Cite
Demydenko, A., & Velychko, V. (2014). Climatic Change Impact on the Grain Crops’ Yielding Capacity at Various Soil Cultivation Ways within Crop-Sugar Beet Rotation Agrocenoses in the Left-Bank Ukraine’s Forest-Steppe. Agricultural Science and Practice, 1(2), 61-71. https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp1.02.061