Focus of mineralization-synthesis processes of the organic matter in the leached chernozem while cultivating potatoes on different fertilization backgrounds

  • V. Volkogon Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agroindustrial Manufacture, the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine 97, Shevchenka Str., Chernihiv, 14027 Ukraine
  • O. Pyrig Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agroindustrial Manufacture, the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine 97, Shevchenka Str., Chernihiv, 14027 Ukraine
  • S. Dimova Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agroindustrial Manufacture, the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine 97, Shevchenka Str., Chernihiv, 14027 Ukraine
  • K. Volkogon Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agroindustrial Manufacture, the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine 97, Shevchenka Str., Chernihiv, 14027 Ukraine
Keywords: N<sub>2</sub>O emission, CO<sub>2</sub> emission, mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers, processes of mineralization and synthesis of organic matter, potatoes, fertilization systems.

Abstract

Aim. To investigate the focus of the mineralization–synthesis processes in leached chernozem while cultivating potatoes in different fertilization systems, ensuring different supplies of raw organic matter into the soil. Methods. Field experiment, gas chromatography. Results. The study of emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from the soil followed by the calculations of the specifi c losses of N-N2O (g/kg C-CO2), depending on fertilization system and in comparison with the indicators of the “reference” soil, provide an opportunity for rapid determination of the focus of the mineralization-synthesis processes in the organic matter in agrocenoses. The use of exclusively mineral fertilization systems results in the highest specifi c losses of N2O as the increase of the applied fertilizer doses initiates the mineralization processes in the soil. The combination of mineral fertilizers with raw organic products (5 t/ha straw and 13 t/ha of lupine cover crop) signifi cantly improves the situation. At the same time, in experiment with the lowest (N40P40K40 kg/ha) and medium (N80Р80К80 kg/ha) doses of mineral fertilizers the balance of mineralization-synthesis processes of organic matter was observed. The highest rate of mineral fertilizer dose in the experiment (N120P120K120 kg/ha), even in combination with the raw organic material, activates mineralization processes. With the use of manure, as well as upon its combination with the lupine cover crop and low doses of mineral fertilizers, the optimization of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions is observed. Conclusions. The use of solely mineral fertilizers in the technology of potato cultivation is inappropriate in terms of environmental reasons. The combination of mineral fertilizers (not exceeding N80Р80К80 kg/ha dose) with straw and lupine cover crop ensures optimization of the processes of mineralization-synthesis of organic matter. Moreover, the optimization of biological processes in the soil was observed in experiments with the use of manure, its combination with lupine cover crop and low doses of mineral fertilizers. The calculations of the indices of mineralization-synthesis of organic matter, considering the emission factors of N2O and CO2, obtained with the use of modern high-sensitivity gas chromatographic methods, allow to determine the focus of biological processes in the soil, depending on fertilization system, and to estimate ecologic sustainability of types and doses of fertilizers.
Published
2020-05-25
How to Cite
VolkogonV., PyrigO., DimovaS., & VolkogonK. (2020). Focus of mineralization-synthesis processes of the organic matter in the leached chernozem while cultivating potatoes on different fertilization backgrounds. Agricultural Science and Practice, 7(1), 40-48. https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp7.01.040