Genetic diversity and population structure of breeds of Askanian sheep by analysing polymorphisms in qualitative trait loci
Keywords: PCR-RFLP, polymorphism
AbstractAim. To determine the level of polymorphism of some genes, pertaining to the quantitative traits of sheep and to study the genetic diversity and population structure of breeds of Askanian sheep and one of its hybrids. Methods. Molecular–genetic, population–statistical, biometric methods. Results. The genetic structure of populations of the Askanian Fine-Fleeced (AFF, n = 33), Askanian Meat-and-Wool (AMW, n = 22) and Askanian Karakul (AK, n = 46) breeds and a hybrid of Askanian Fine-Fleeced × Texel (AFFT, n = 40) has been studied for the fi rst time in terms of the polymorphisms of the following qualitative trait genes (loci) : meat productivity genes: ovine growth hormone (GH), calpastatin (CAST) and myostatin (MSTN); prolifi cacy genes: Booroola (fecundity gene FecB) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP15). The sheep in all studied breeds and the hybrid mentioned above are characterized by the polymorphism of two loci, GH and CAST. The other three loci studied did not show polymorphism for the markers studied. GH is present as two genotypes (A/A, A/B), and CAST as three genotypes (A/A, A/B, B/B). The remaining genes were found to be in the monomorphic state. The frequencies of certain genotypes and alleles change in the direction from fi ne–fl eeced to meat animals. For instance, the concentration of heterozygous growth hormone (GH) genotype A/B increases from 0.0 % (AFFB) to 38.2 % (AMWB), and the concentration of allele A – from 0.083 to 0.191. The live bodyweight of fi ne–fl eeced lambs with GH genotype A/B at birth equaled 4.5 kg, and those with homozygous genotype A/A – 4.9 kg (P < 0.001). Therefore, homozygous genotype А/А determined the increased level of meat productivity of sheep. A similar dependence was established at birth for the Askanian Karakul breed. Conclusions. The specifi city of genetic structure of Askanian breeds and hybrid is polymorphism of the GH and CAST and absence of polymorphism of BMP15 and FecB genes, determining the prolifi cacy (reproduction) trait. According to the distribution of polymorphic loci variants, the gene pools of Askanian Meat-and-Wool breed and the local Askanian-Texel hybrid are closely related and therefore explains the same direction of their productivity. At the same time, all populations are in a state of genetic equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg, which indicates a high level of their consolidation. Sheep which have the A/A homozygote of the gene growth hormone are characterized by an increased level of the body weight development.
How to Cite
IovenkoV., VdovychenkoY., PysarenkoN., SkrepetsK., & HladiiI. (2020). Genetic diversity and population structure of breeds of Askanian sheep by analysing polymorphisms in qualitative trait loci. Agricultural Science and Practice, 7(1), 3-13. https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp7.01.003
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