Optimization of fertility indices of podzolic soils via cultivation of phytomeliorants

  • Yu. Tsapko -
  • A. Ohorodnia -
Keywords: cultivation, phytomeliorative measures, podzolic soils, acid-alkaline state, structural aggregate composition, composition density

Abstract

Aim. To determine and estimate the impact of phytopotential of cultivated plants on the fertility indices of podzolic soils, the main factors, limiting the performance of crops, and to establish economic effi ciency of cultivating phytomeliorants, different in their physiological properties. Methods. Field, laboratory, mathematical-statistical. Results. Comprehensive four-year-long studies (2013–2017) established that the optimization of physical and chemical properties of podzolic soils is achieved via the application of phytomeliorant measures. First and foremost, these measures are aimed at preventing the decalcifi cation of soils, i.e. they condition the accumulation of an active Са 2+ ion, which promotes improving the soil characteristics due to progressing development of cumulative soil genesis. It was established that with the mass of alfalfa roots of 9.7 t/ha and sainfoin of 9.9 t/ha, the 0–100 cm layer of podzolic chernozem contains 148.6 and 109.2 kg/ha СаО respectively. Enriching the root-containing layer of soil with calcium compounds promotes replenishing the soil with active calcium, thus ensuring the optimization of the lime potential (pH – 0.5pCa). The latter affects both the acid-alkaline balance and the regulation of physical and chemical processes in soil. It was established that after three years of phytomelioration, the soil in variants with perennial grasses is characterized with higher buffer against acid-alkaline load compared to the control variant which is confi rmed with the indices of acid-alkaline buffer. Taking the abovementioned into consideration, one may assume that the very increase in the activity of calcium is one of buffer mechanisms of soil against acidifi cation. It was proven that phytomelioration is effi cient in terms of improving physical properties of soils, and soil structure, in particular, due to the decrease in the number of dusty and lumpy fractions. It was established that due to phytomeliorant measures the saturation of soil-colloid absorbing complex with calcium ensures intense improvement of water resistance of aggregates for two years. It was proven that optimal values of soil composition density for most crops of the Forest-Steppe zone may be achieved while cultivating Sudan grass for one year. The improvement of the main indices of soil fertility via phytomeliorative measures led to the increase in the performance of corn and barley and improvement of quality properties of grain. Conclusions. Phytomeliorative technology of cultivating podzolic soils ensures the balanced use of soils with simultaneous orientation towards preservation of resources, ecological safety and supplying the population with stable yield of crops with high quality of products.
Published
2018-04-15
How to Cite
Tsapko, Y., & Ohorodnia, A. (2018). Optimization of fertility indices of podzolic soils via cultivation of phytomeliorants. Agricultural Science and Practice, 5(1), 42-50. https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp5.01.042