online ISSN:2312-3389 print ISSN:2312-3370 DOI:10.15407/agrisp

Archive

Archive of Agricultural Science and Practice Journal issues

List of all issues / Content of issue 2018-3 / Abstract & References of Article 7
https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp5.03.047
FORMATION OF EROSION RESISTANCE OF GRAY FOREST SOILS IN THE CONDITIONS OF CARPATHIAN REGION
O. Y. Kachmar, O. V. Vavrynovych, A. O. Dubytska, V. Ya. Ivaniuk

Institute of Agriculture of the Carpathian Region NAAS, 81115, 5, Hrushevskoho Str., Obroshyne village, Pustomytivsky District, Lviv Region

E-mail: oksanaostrowska@ukr.net, vavrynovychoksana@gmail.com, ivanukv@gmail.com

Received on September 14, 2018 / Received September 24, 2018 / Accepted November 21, 2018
Abstract
Aim. To study the impact of perennial grasses mixtures on the formation of erosion resistance of gray forest soils of different degradation degree and their unmodifi ed analogues in conditions of long-term permanent experiment. Methods. Field, laboratory, assessment and comparison. Results. It was established that lupine- cereal grass mixtures increased erosion resistance of slope soils considerably within fi fteen years. The sum of soil structural aggregates was improved from satisfactory into good category. There were positive changes in the number of water-resistant aggregates as well. The studies confi rmed a positive impact of legume-grasses on the density and porosity of soil. Soil density was the lowest when the slope was laid down in perennial lupine and its mixture with cereal grasses. The intensifi cation of soil erosion and the approximation of the illuvial horizon level to the surface resulted in the compaction of upper soil layers to 1.29–1.44 g/cc. General porosity of soil correlated with its density which did not exceed optimal values in poorly eroded soils in upper layers. The studies proved the impact of the ways of laying down the slope in grass and the level of soil degradation on its humidity and water permeability. In the experiment conditions, the increase in soil degradation led to the decrease in its moisture. The decrease in the content of humidity in crop fi eld took place at the expense of higher intensity of the growth and water consumption of lupine-cereal grasses in comparison with natural mixed herbs, especially in the periods with a small amount of precipitation. The difference in the upper soil layers was in the range of 0.2–0.5 %. It was established that the highest values of soil water permeability were formed on lupine-cereal grass mixtures in all the variants of degraded soils. Conclusions. Laying down slope lands in perennial lupine in combination with cereal grasses promotes the formation of their higher resistance to erosion processes and restoration of fertility. Perennial legume-cereal mixtures ensure the improvement of structural-aggregate state, total density and porosity of soil, enhance its water supply and water permeability.
Key words: gray forest soils, degradation, erosion resistance.
References

1. Ivanyuk V, Kachmar O, Ivanyuk H. Anti-erosion resistance of gray forest soils of the Lviv plateau. Peredhirne ta hirske zemlerobstvo i tvarynnytstvo. 2015;(57):87-92.
2. Kachmar O, Ivanyuk V. The effective use of the sloping lands of western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Peredhirne ta hirske zemlerobstvo i tvarynnytstvo. 2007;(49):64-71.
3. Voloshchuk M. Source degradation - global environ- mental problem. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Geography. 2017;51:63-70.
4. Baliuk S, Medvedev V, Vorotyntseva L, Shymel V. Modern problems of degradation of soils and measures regard- ing reaching its neutral level. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky. 2017;(8):5-11. doi.org/10.31073/agrovisnyk201708-01.
5. Kaminskyi V, Shevchenko I, Kolomiiets L. Scientifi c- and-methodical maintenance of protection of lands of agricultural assignment as a precondition for sustainable development of agribusiness industry of Ukraine. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky. 2018;(1):5-10. doi.org/10.31073/agro- visnyk201801-01.
6. Shevchenko I, Kolomiiets L. Optimization of rural land use in the requirements of European integration. Zem- lerobstvo. 2014;(1/2):15-9.
7. Movchan M. Main trends of solving the problems of degradation and desertifi cation in Ukraine. Zemleustrii, kadastr i monitorynh zemel. 2017;(2):85-90.
8. Medvedev V, Plisko I, Bigun O. Water stability of structu- re of arable soils of Ukraine. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky. 2015;(8):11- 5.